Forms of Government
There are two schools of thoughts. One believes that Sovereignty is unlimited, absolute and supreme. That is another school of thought that rejects this view. They point out many limitations of Sovereignty such as: Constitutional Limitations of Sovereignty, Natural Limitation, Moral Limitations
on October 7th 1958, President Maj. Gen. Sikander Mirza imposed Martial Law and appointed Gen. Muhammad Ayub Khan as the CMLA. The Revolution of 1958 was welcomed by the people of Pakistan and they heaved a sigh of relief as the Martial Law regime at once restored law and order situation in the country.
Independence of judiciary is determined to a great extent by the mode of appointment of its members. They may appointed by the people through the elections or indirectly by the members of the legislature for a fixed term. They may also be appointed by the head of state through nomination.
In modern times we have indirect democracy, under this system the people elect their representatives and give them the authority to make the law and implement them. Actually in democracy sovereignty belongs to people but under normal circumstances it becomes difficult for the people to legislate directly. So sometimes the people make the laws directly.
Independence of judiciary means that judiciary should be impartial in the discharge of its functions and that the executive or legislature should exert influence on it through the appointment, salaries, promotion or condition of services of its members.
Federalism makes the state weak because there is always a conflict going on between the center and the federating units and as a result of this both the federal government and the federating units suffer. This also results in delays and inefficiency and leads to the weakness of the state.
A federation is an agreement between two or more sovereign states to create a new state in which each will exercise specific powers. This agreement is in the shape of the constitution. The constitution defines and explains the powers and the jurisdiction of each government.
Under federalism there is both unity as well as diversity. In other words it means that there is one country in which the provinces or the federating units maintain their individuality. A federation maintains a balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces.
Following are the features & characteristics of parliamentary system,Formation of Cabinet, Team Work Spirit, Supremacy of Premier Coordination of Powers, Political Collective, Parliamentary system has been taken from the United Kingdom because U.K. constitution is the mother constitution of parliamentarianism. It is also called ministerial or cabinet system.
In a Parliamentary system the legislative and the executive department of the government are very closely related and are interdependent for the performance of governmental functions. Under this system there is no separation of the legislative and the executive departments.