Sub culture defined as a sub division of a national culture, or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of human behaviour, beliefs, attitudes, habits, values, norms, and orientation toward life and life after death. The concept of sub culture refers to a totality of ways of thinking, behaving, learning and living of majority of people living within a bigger complex whole.
It was not a social problem in the past to have a differential treatment by certain sections of population on the basis of rigid caste system. The focus of attention has been changed and the implications of caste system in political, educational, religious, family and marriage and economic activities are considered as undesirable and undemocratic.
The caste determines one's occupation, social participation, role and status in various social situations with functional emphasis on an individual. It brings solidarity, unity and integration in intra-caste people. People develop 'We' group feeling among themselves, taking the persons of other castes as 'They group."
All societies show some system of hierarchy whereby its members are placed in positions that are higher or lower, superior or inferior in relation to each other. Stratification as “it is the division of a population into two or more layers, each of which is relatively homogeneous and between which there are differences in privileges, restrictions, rewards and obligations”.
All societies have some system of social stratification. They may be categorized as: Open Societies and Closed Societies
Merwill has pointed out the following characteristics of institutions. 1. The first characteristics of Social institutions, these are patterns of behaviour grouped about the central needs of human beings in a society. 2. In all societies the institution of family plays an important and central role.
Many structural and social factors determine just how much opportunity for mobility exists in a society for an individual or group of individuals. Important causes and factors of social mobility: Gender, Education, Social Change, Urbanization and Industrialization, Transportation and Communication
The social class into which one is born has a profound influence on one's entire life. One faces more disadvantages and fewer life chances at the bottom of the social stratification system. One’s mental health, education, occupation, political behavior, religious affiliations, social participation