Participant observation was firstly introduced by Prof-Edward winder man. Participant observation means the activities of a group in which an observer himself participate and note the situation. He willingly mixes with the group and perform his activities as an observer not merely a participator who criticize the situation. In other words he takes place and share the activities with his group.
Only mental fitness is not the quality of a good observer but he also possess the physical fitness. If a personal is physically fit, he must be considered as a good observer. So, physical and mental both finesses are required for a good observer. If a person has the ability to judge the situation quick and having sharp mind, he will immediately record the information’s. So, it is must for an observer to record a data immediately.
The observer cannot observe each and every thing. He studies only those things which fall in his direct observation. For example an inspector of traffic observe only those vehicles driven in wrong way or fast. In the same way a researcher take notice of those things which & are the object and relative to his study.
Observation has been derived from two Latin words “ob” meaning before and serve which means keeping. Combining both we get observe which gives the meaning a process through which a thing or situation is kept before to see and watch carefully. P.V. Young: Observation is a systematic and deliberate study through spontaneous eye occurrence.