Independence of judiciary is determined to a great extent by the mode of appointment of its members. They may appointed by the people through the elections or indirectly by the members of the legislature for a fixed term. They may also be appointed by the head of state through nomination.
Independence of judiciary means that judiciary should be impartial in the discharge of its functions and that the executive or legislature should exert influence on it through the appointment, salaries, promotion or condition of services of its members.
A federation is an agreement between two or more sovereign states to create a new state in which each will exercise specific powers. This agreement is in the shape of the constitution. The constitution defines and explains the powers and the jurisdiction of each government.
Aristotle State concept shows that he believed in evolutionary or historical theory of the origin of state. Therefore his approach in this connection is correct. Man as a civilized individual cannot survive without state and if he claims, then it means from human beings, he is nation-less, lawless, and homeless. He is either above or below humanity.