In view of the unitary features of Indian constitution, several political writers have asserted that the Indian Constitution is federal only in form but is unitary infact. It is not a genuine federation. Professor G.N. Joshi said that India is not striking a federal state for it has a quasi-federal constitution. Professor K.C. Where an authority on federalism, commented that India is a unitary state with subsidiary federal features rather than a federal state
A critical evaluation of the Indian Constitution reveals the fact that it combines both federal and unitary feature. Nevertheless, the centripetal bias in it is strong that it is only federal in form and unitary in spirit and therefore, quasi-federal in nature. As such it can operate as a federal or as a unitary constitution as time or circumstances require.
The Lok Sabha or the House of People is the lower chamber of parliament. It is a representative house consisting of members directly elected by the people. The Indian constitution has fixed its membership at 520. However, through various constitutional amendments (7th, 14th. And 31st) its strength has been changing from time to time.
Nature of Indian Federalism, Ever since the inauguration of the Indian Constitution a controversy has been going on about its federal nature. At is said that it is Federal in form but unitary in spirit and that it is quasi-federal that is it appears to be federal but is really unitary form of constitution for it has armed the Central. Government with huge powers which lessen or nullify the autonomous position of the component states.
The spirit of Indian Constitution is based on secularism. Originally the word Secular did not occur in the constitution. The Constitution (42 Amend) Act, 1976, added the term Secular to the Preamble. Accordingly now India is a "Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and democratic Republic". The Indian State does not establish, recognize or endow any religion.
The concept of Secular State can be properly understood only after an appreciation of the true meaning of Secularism. Secularism is a way of life and conduct guided by material considerations devoid of religion and spirituality. The basis of this ideology is that material means alone can advance the welfare of Mankind and that religious beliefs retard the growth of human beings.
Following are the powers and functions of the Rajya Sabha the Indian council of states. Rajya Sabha has co-equal and co-extensive powers with the Lok Sabha except the financial matters. Any bill, except a money bill, can be initiated in the Rajya Sabha and can become an Act only when assented to by both the Houses. In case of disagreement between the two, the President is authorized to summon a joint sitting of both the Houses.
The Rajya Sabha is the second not the secondary chamber of the Indian Union Parliament. The framers of the Indian Constitution wanted it to be a weak chamber. But it is not as weak as the British House of-Lords, while it is not as strong as the American Senate. In money matters it is definitely a weaker house than the Lok Sabha and so it is in regard to the power to question and. supervise the Cabinet. But in all other respects