In pre-industrial societies and in agricultural social groups, there is emphasis on cooperative activities, joint families, joint occupations and community living. These are the basic motives for high fertility rate. In agricultural societies children are valued due to economic, social, religious and cultural factors. Economically they start earning and helping the parents at very young age.
A strong motivation is used for procreating more children, at present time. In most of the developed countries the psychological or motivational factors are in favor of low fertility. Among the motivational factors, the most important factors are desire for small family, availability of means of birth control and emphasis on sex enjoyment.