An ethnocentric attitude may be advantageous for certain groups, but at the same time it may be having disadvantages for the opponents. For instance, Sunnies and Shias among Muslims and Protestants and Catholics among Christians are ethnocentric in respect of their sects. Thus, it would place these sects in an advantageous position, i.e, to have solidarity in their groups and maintain status quo.
Through religious, political, economic and educational institutions ethnocentrism is taught. Members of society are indoctrinated to conform to particular cultural patterns. The religious and educational institutions are the clear examples for teaching ethnocentrism. The children are taught about their country's achievements of their national heroes. They are also thought about the superiority of their literature.
Ethnocentrism means the evaluation of other cultures with the measuring and prevailing in one's own-culture. This is why the cultural traits which are similar to those of the observers, are evaluated as better than those which are quite different. The attitude where a person attributes one's own culture as superior to other lacks objectivity.
Sub culture defined as a sub division of a national culture, or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of human behaviour, beliefs, attitudes, habits, values, norms, and orientation toward life and life after death. The concept of sub culture refers to a totality of ways of thinking, behaving, learning and living of majority of people living within a bigger complex whole.
Teachers take the responsibility of educating the youth of a nation. They have to look after their all-round development. Teachers are the ultimate builders of a nation. While a nation without a culture cannot be differentiated from other nations, hence, it is proved that the process of teaching, learning is a much strong way/mean of the culture to flourish.
An American Sociologist William Fielding Ogburn suggests that social change occurs in culture and cultural evolution is the result of the following is the process of of social change which includes: Invention, Accumulation, Diffusion and Adjustment
Assimilation is the integration of two dissimilar cultures into a single culture comprising characteristics of both. When a minority ethnic group is assimilated into the dominant culture, the minority group loses its distinctiveness.
There are three main sources of social change i.e. 1. Cultural base 2. Change in population structure and 3. The extraordinary gifted persons