There were several factors (Famines and food shortage, Epidemics, War and Terror etc) have led to high mortality rates up to 19th century. However after the agricultural and industrial revolutions, mortality rates have fallen everywhere. Following were the most important factors for the decline of the mortality rate. Agricultural revolution started in England around 1700 AD and spread throughout Europe and the European settlements in the world.
Population change has been defined in terms of mortality, fertility and migration. According to the United Nations, mortality is the percentage of death in the population. Death has been defined by WHO, death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after birth has taken place. This definition proves that death can occur only after live birth.
These terms are used for international migration or migration from one country to another. Immigration is coming from one country to another and emigration is going from one country to another. For example; immigration of Hindus from Bangladesh to India and emigration of Indians to united states.
Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another and the intentions of settling to the new location can either be permanent or temporary. This type of movement usually covers a long distance, probably from one country to another. Nomadic movements are not considered as migration as their intention is not to settle in any new place but it’s all seasonal.
There are various problem attached to family life and family planning has made a scientific approach to solve these problems. Family Planning is concerned with the spacing and limitation of child-births in the family and to achieve parenthood, if medically possible. The term family planning is most commonly used to actions or programmes intended to prevent conception or avoid its consequences when if does occur.
Pull factors are the attractive factors by which an individual is attracted to change his place of living. Following are some of the pull factors. Health facilities, High standard of living, High standard of education, Better recreational facilities
The extension of man’s power over nature has been the primary condition of the growth of modern cities. Man has exploited natural resources through technological improvements to a great extent. Now few people can supply basic needs of many people, whenever a society or group within it, gains control over resources, cities grows and fulfill the basic needs of life.
Segregation. In this step the iconological difference occurs due to diversity in activities. In these activities some are identified geographically or related to particular areas of the city. In this way city develops a distinct financial district, a trade centre and a residential sector, each separate from the others.