The institutions of technology change first in their various aspects of using implements, tools, weapons, which later change our industries in various fields. Technological advancement is applied in the expansion of industrialization toward transportation (trains, cars, buses, aero planes, cycles and others), medicine (X-Rays, operation tools, certain disease detecting machines like ultrasound) and dental surgery
It is the nature of culture which directs social change. There are cultures around the world which encourage social change in technology, others in biological factors of the individual, and some in other cultural factors. The Western culture directs social change towards industrialization, The Western advanced societies lay their cultural emphasis upon technological and industrial expansion.
Discovery. It is a shared human perception of an aspect of reality which already exists. In other words, It is the noticing of something to which no attention was previously paid, although it existed. According to Linton defines it is addition to knowledge. Some of the example of discovery are custom of marriage, ceremonies of worship etc. Finding facts in research is discovery.
Society strives its continuity and existence according to the environmental conditions of its surrounding. People have been descending down from generation to generation with the addition of new ideas and objects. This dynamic process of society enhances culture with refreshment and for every generation a new culture than for the previous. A stagnant society is dead but there is none today how so primitive it may be.
In pre-industrial societies and in agricultural social groups, there is emphasis on cooperative activities, joint families, joint occupations and community living. These are the basic motives for high fertility rate. In agricultural societies children are valued due to economic, social, religious and cultural factors. Economically they start earning and helping the parents at very young age.
A strong motivation is used for procreating more children, at present time. In most of the developed countries the psychological or motivational factors are in favor of low fertility. Among the motivational factors, the most important factors are desire for small family, availability of means of birth control and emphasis on sex enjoyment.
Some occupations are more risky and creates so many health problems. Some industries are clinked with various diseases. Death rate in some occupations is high while low in others. For example; death rate is high in workers who are working in the mines and chemical industries. Occupation provides income and standard of living which influence death rate.
Biological factors include age of the mother, order of birth, time interval between births etc. it has been observed that fetus and post-natal mortality rates are high at the young age of the mother like below 19 for the first birth order up to the age of 29, these rates decline and then increase after it. The maturity of an infant is also an important factor.