In ancient times social thought was unorganized as there was not systematic study of social problems. The history of social thought came from, when man was passing through a complex network of social problems, so he originate thinking about the solution of these problems. Social thought is developed through the following process and stages
Following are the main characteristics of sociological theory. Sociological theory is a set of well-defined concepts. These concepts are inter-related and have a link with each other. The propositions contains at least two interrelated concepts.There would be logical explanation in these propositions. A theory leads to a reliable prediction. A sociological theory is subjected to versification through well-organized methods and techniques.
Theory means different things to different people. It is an intelligent statement about anything. It is a conceptual scheme designed to explain relationship between two or more variables. Abraham Kaplan “Theory is a way to think about a disturbing situation which allow us to change or modify our habits or replacing by new ones as the social situation demands”.
Different sociologists have classified sociological theory into different types. According to Boskoff in a volume entitled “modern sociological theory” classified into two types. Social theory and Non-social theory. Humans identify the two types of theory, The Normative Theory and Non-normative theory. Non-Normative theory is further classified into, Structural, Functional and Psychological theories
The construction and formulation of a sociological theory is very old but in past, there was no systematic and organized method for its formulation and verification. The theorists were unable to know that either their theories are valid or invalid but today there is a standard of verification of theories.
Social thought is a philosophical and intellectual ideas of a person or persons regarding to a particular time, place and about the growth, development and decay of human societies. Social thought is a current social thinking about the structure and functions of a social system.
According to Max Weber Bureaucracy Theory, all organizations have limited human freedom in order to be efficient. The organization tries to compel the members to obey the rules of the organization which results in loss of individual freedom. According to Weber, an organization has power to reward for good actions and punish for bad actions. For this purpose it will clear to know about the needs and demands of the individuals.
Max Weber’s another contribution in the field of sociology is the theory of religion. The basic theme of Weber’s sociology of religion is that there is direct link b/w the economic system and the practical ethics of community. These two are interdependent on each other. The influence of both is positive.