Social Research Methodology
Following are the qualities of a good questionnaire. The length of questionnaire should be proper one. The language used should be easy and simple. The term used are explained properly.The questions should be arranged in a proper way. The questions should be in logical manner. The questions should be in analytical form.
Following are the types or forms of questionnaire structure, unstructured, hand delivered & mailed questionnaire. Structured Questionnaire is that one which has pre-determined questions with answers. The respondents only tick the correct answer in short term “yes” or “No”. It is also called pre-coded, closed restricted and categorical questionnaire.
Questionnaire contains a series of questions designed to gather particular information. It is used in different fields like business, sciences, and social sciences. It is a research instrument having sequence of questions with a purpose to get information from respondents and extract desired statistical data.
Participant observation was firstly introduced by Prof-Edward winder man. Participant observation means the activities of a group in which an observer himself participate and note the situation. He willingly mixes with the group and perform his activities as an observer not merely a participator who criticize the situation. In other words he takes place and share the activities with his group.
Only mental fitness is not the quality of a good observer but he also possess the physical fitness. If a personal is physically fit, he must be considered as a good observer. So, physical and mental both finesses are required for a good observer. If a person has the ability to judge the situation quick and having sharp mind, he will immediately record the information’s. So, it is must for an observer to record a data immediately.
The observer cannot observe each and every thing. He studies only those things which fall in his direct observation. For example an inspector of traffic observe only those vehicles driven in wrong way or fast. In the same way a researcher take notice of those things which & are the object and relative to his study.
Observation has been derived from two Latin words “ob” meaning before and serve which means keeping. Combining both we get observe which gives the meaning a process through which a thing or situation is kept before to see and watch carefully. P.V. Young: Observation is a systematic and deliberate study through spontaneous eye occurrence.
Close Contact. While studying a field an instigator has close contact with local people and for this purpose he studies more about the problematic situation. Greater Objectivity. Survey method leads to greater objectivity. Since there is close contact of the surveyor with people and observe the situation himself, therefore greater objectivity is achieved in this method.
When an organization whether public or private or individual conduct survey at regular intervals, it is called regular survey e.g. population census, economics survey, educational survey. That type of survey takes place every five or ten years regularly. Adhoc survey is that one in which it is conducted for a time being and when the purpose achieved, the survey is over e.g. flood victims, earth quack victims surveys etc.
The world social survey was firstly used by heredities during 300B-C for population study in Egypt. Secondly it was used John Howard for prisons and prisoners in Wales and England. French reformers also undertaken it for the conditions of workers after industrialization Row tree used for economic conditions in U.S.A in 1936 and 1988. Shelley Harrison used for interconnected social problems in 1914.