Basics of Sociology
There are 196 independent countries in the world, among them 193 are the members of the United Nations but three are not. Those three countries which are not member of UN are Vatican City, Kosovo and Taiwan (China claims that Taiwan is simply a province of China). Every independent country on the face of globe has its own rules & Regulations, Language, Culture, Customs & Etiquette and same is the case with Canada.
Every country on the face of globe faces some social issues and same is the case with the Canada. From past few years, the most alarming elements of the Canadian identity are the country’s social laws & policies. Laws and regulations that govern how Canadians citizens can live their lives, and what kind of government-guaranteed perks and benefits they enjoy, are among the top priorities of government.
The cultural goals have cultural values therein. These cultural values carve cultural goals for the people to strive and achieve. These goals cherish interest and attitude of the people toward attainment. To attain these goals, individual and collective efforts of the people are directed toward achievement. Their activities lead them toward acceptance of various changes in life.
Some of the cultures provide a condition for resistance to change. The customary ways of life and cultural values have been laid so deeply in their nature that any external element does not find a room as to become a part of their culture. Such a way of life does not accept social change due to cultural inertia. Nomadic people wandering from one part of the region to another and contacting people of various regions stick to their own cultural ways.
Societies have been classified in terms of their highest level is political integration, that occurs in terms of the nature of the political structure & authority. An eminent Anthropologist, Elman Service, classified societies into four kinds. Band, Tribes, Chiefdom and State
In every society there are some limits of prohibitions of sexuality. However in some other societies incest taboo is permitted like in “ancient Egyptians. They practiced marriage between brother and sister in the royal families. This is also practiced in Saha Tribe of Columbia and North America.
Elementary family is a unit of social structure through which kinship system is build up. It consist of a man, his wife and children. The elementary family creates the following three types of relations.Relations between husband & wife. Relations between parents & children. Relations between the children of the same parents. In a kinship system there are so many elementary families which. Constitutes different orders of relations.
In ancient times social thought was unorganized as there was not systematic study of social problems. The history of social thought came from, when man was passing through a complex network of social problems, so he originate thinking about the solution of these problems. Social thought is developed through the following process and stages
Following are the main characteristics of sociological theory. Sociological theory is a set of well-defined concepts. These concepts are inter-related and have a link with each other. The propositions contains at least two interrelated concepts.There would be logical explanation in these propositions. A theory leads to a reliable prediction. A sociological theory is subjected to versification through well-organized methods and techniques.
Theory means different things to different people. It is an intelligent statement about anything. It is a conceptual scheme designed to explain relationship between two or more variables. Abraham Kaplan “Theory is a way to think about a disturbing situation which allow us to change or modify our habits or replacing by new ones as the social situation demands”.