Basics of Sociology
It is based on expansion of education, technology, industry and urban life. It has a complex culture changing with the time. Its base is materializing. Due to diverse social conditions heterogeneous life is found. Social problems of various nature develop among various groups.
A culture has four aspects or four types material and non-material culture and ideal & real culture. Material culture is related to tangible objects made by man. Buildings, furniture, books are the products of material culture. Non-material culture is related to the abstract things like emotions, attitudes, ideas and beliefs which we feel but cannot verify by observation. Peace, war, co-operation, marriage and lecture are the examples of non-material culture.
No society can develop its social organization and social system without co-operation. The whole machinery of social life is moving on the wheels of cod-operation. We find co-operation in family, education, agriculture, industry, 'business and trade, political activities of a party and a religious sect.
According to Maciver and Page a process means "continuous change taking place in a definite manner through the operation of forces presents from the first within the situation”. It is also called the processes of social interaction. Social processes are the products of social interaction which can be classified into two types associative and disassociate social process
Social interaction and social relationship is a social process and influences the interacting bodies in a tangible manner. Interaction is a process of change. This change can be measured mathematically and hence its effects can be predicted. The following are the factors of measuring interaction in society: Frequency, Duration, Intensity and Focus
Social interaction is the basis of the whole social order. Social group is the product of social interaction. There is interaction among animals and birds also. It is the real foundation of all social processes, structure, social groups and functions. In sociology interaction is the gate of its knowledge.
According to Max Weber sociology is the science of social action. Obviously it means any action in relation to other action and its important characteristic is the nature of being social. Max Weber himself differentiated such actions by giving examples. A driver driving a car is doing social activity and a student reading a book is not.
In an organized society, there is stability and change. Stability is the condition of equilibrium among the parts of society. It is the state of smooth functioning. During this condition; the social problems decrease in society. Change is the dynamic condition of society. An organized society is also changing for the fulfillment of social needs.
A social system expresses the bonds of relationship among its members. If the relationship is significant the system is stable and. the insignificant relations are found in unstable system. The significance of interaction can be judged from its frequency, duration, focus and intensity already discussed in the chapter of Social Interaction.
The word Aboriginal refers to those peoples of a country who are living there from the earliest times or from before the arrival of colonists. Aboriginal people of Canada play a vital role in formation of history and cultural identity. There are three main groups of aboriginal people in the country and their population is more than 1.6 million.