Basics of Sociology
Social norms, informal ones, develop-automatically, by and by during social processes. We are conscious about their existence when we find ourselves in need of them. These are latently working among common man interrelationship and seldom the members conscious are about them. Their emergence differs in nature and degree of intensity from group to group according to group value.
Social norms are the shared expectations of group members in a social situation, while culture norms are the ideally expected manners of behaviour. The given 'social situation' is created when the interaction processes work among the members. In such a situation how the initiator starts his interaction and what the receiving members expect from the initiator, are the roles defined by social norms.
Cultures are the product of human society, and it saves its culture by changing and transmitting to the next generation. Culture and society are counterparts like the two faces of a sheet of paper. It is secondary to society and is the man made part of environment. It is universal for human experience. It is dynamic because completely static cultures are dead ones but they don’t exist in contemporary societies of the world.
Summer defined ethnocentrism as "that view of things in which ones' own group is the center of everything and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it. From this definition, Horton and Hunt deduce that it is the habit of every group of taking for granted the superiority of its culture.
The people within their contact second to the primary group form secondary group no matter whatever the type of relationship is there. Sometimes they are also special interest group. The intimacy within the group is relatively lower than that in primary. The relations of teacher and student, buyer and seller, voter and candidate, are secondary.
Primary groups are primary in the sense that the members within are emotionally attached together sharing their basic ways of life with one another. In the basic affairs of life which are most essential for a social life those who fall into mutual sharing of one another form a group prime in importance called Primary group. Emotions, attitude, ideas and habits of individuals develop within this.
We may classify social groups from various viewpoints. If we consider size as the criterion, the single person as a focus of group relationship is 'monad' two involved in interaction to affect its organization is 'dyad' and 'triad' with the participation of three. The primary group is primary in the sense that the members are emotionally attached together sharing their basic ways of life with one another.
A group is became social when interaction interplays among its participants. Social interaction is its basic condition. People walking in markets, in fairs, travelling in train are not social groups. Because social interaction among them does not exist. Two persons, in Amsterdam and New York, having interaction on telephone form it although they are far away from each other. Therefore social interaction is the basic condition of social groups.