Basics of Sociology
Sociology, the youngest of the social sciences, nevertheless has a historical development of its own. The questions about society posed by the early theorists have not only played an important role in the development of sociological thoughts but also continue to influence it.
An institution is specifically established for fixed social needs. If it fulfils these needs there is social Solidarity and cohesion among the people. If it fails to meet prescribed objectives there is dysfunctioning of the institution and state of unrest will emerge among the people.
Inducting an individual into society is called socialization. It is a process of training to adjust man in society. Man is to live in various social groups and different social situations. He is to learn techniques of life to adjust himself in new modes of life. It is the learning of techniques of social life. In other words, it is the process of learning different behaviors in different social situations.
A culture's values preferences of a society about what is good, fair and right. Conflict theory stress on how culture’s values differ between different groups, while functionalism stress on the shared culture’s values. For instance, an American sociologist Robert K. Merton says that the most important culture’s values in American society are wealth, power, success and prestige, but every individual does not have equal opportunities to attain these values.
Cultural values are hereditary and form core of the culture. The customs, rituals conventions, styles and fashions remain in the core of culture. The values hold supreme position among them. These values give a shape to the culture and the society. These are very difficult to change because they remain in embedded of social institutions and the social norms.
Values, belief and religion all the three are interrelated concept. According to Durkheim, "a religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things" It unites into a single moral community all who adhere to those beliefs and practices. From this definition, it is evident that belief is a part of religion. Besides that in a social system we find religion an important value in sacred societies.
Deviance is violation of norms. It is breaking the norms of society, social manners and code of conduct in business and mutual agreements between the parties. It is against the social manners of family and marriage. It is the breaking of promise and breaking the law of state like committing crimes. Any violation of norm is Deviance. It is natural that man deviates from norms.
All the various forms of social norms are instruments of social control in varying degrees. The social usages, folkways regulating our behaviour, are called mores. The folkways and mores have the same source of their emergence and it is group interaction. Both are the customary ways of life and are standards of right and wrong. The people seek direction of their actions by learning these norms in group life.
Man's action repeated by him is his habit and a repeated behaviour by a group of people is a custom. More specifically, the socially approved ways of acting are the customs of the society. These customs develop during the way of our daily life and we conform to them consciously and unconsciously, Because they have become an important part of our behaviour, These very customs when regularized by our repeated behaviour,