Basics of Sociology
All societies show some system of hierarchy whereby its members are placed in positions that are higher or lower, superior or inferior in relation to each other. Stratification as “it is the division of a population into two or more layers, each of which is relatively homogeneous and between which there are differences in privileges, restrictions, rewards and obligations”.
The basic functions of institutions are following: 1. Reproduction, 2. Socialization Function, 3. Sense of Purpose, 4. Preservation of Order, 5. Transmission of Culture, 6. Personality Development
An American Sociologist William Fielding Ogburn suggests that social change occurs in culture and cultural evolution is the result of the following is the process of of social change which includes: Invention, Accumulation, Diffusion and Adjustment
Sociology is a branch of knowledge which has some unique features. It is different from other sciences in several respects. From studying those characteristics will help one to understand the field of sociology. Below are the essential characteristics of sociology.
Assimilation is the integration of two dissimilar cultures into a single culture comprising characteristics of both. When a minority ethnic group is assimilated into the dominant culture, the minority group loses its distinctiveness.
The origin of the word caste found differently. Some says that “caste” meaning lineage. In other books it is written that it is from Spanish word “Casta” meaning breed or race. It means that the people of the same caste belonging to the same race.
All societies have some system of social stratification. They may be categorized as: Open Societies and Closed Societies
Merwill has pointed out the following characteristics of institutions. 1. The first characteristics of Social institutions, these are patterns of behaviour grouped about the central needs of human beings in a society. 2. In all societies the institution of family plays an important and central role.
Society is the combination of individuals. These individuals have their various needs which they want to be satisfied. For this purpose people behave in a customary way which is controlled by social norms. This participation of people for the attainment of their various needs develop social institutions.
Following the main hindrances to social mobility, 1. Joint family system 2. Illiteracy 3. Poor economic condition 4. No desire for change