Basics of Sociology
Ethnocentrism means the evaluation of other cultures with the measuring and prevailing in one's own-culture. This is why the cultural traits which are similar to those of the observers, are evaluated as better than those which are quite different. The attitude where a person attributes one's own culture as superior to other lacks objectivity.
Sub culture defined as a sub division of a national culture, or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of human behaviour, beliefs, attitudes, habits, values, norms, and orientation toward life and life after death. The concept of sub culture refers to a totality of ways of thinking, behaving, learning and living of majority of people living within a bigger complex whole.
It was not a social problem in the past to have a differential treatment by certain sections of population on the basis of rigid caste system. The focus of attention has been changed and the implications of caste system in political, educational, religious, family and marriage and economic activities are considered as undesirable and undemocratic.
The caste determines one's occupation, social participation, role and status in various social situations with functional emphasis on an individual. It brings solidarity, unity and integration in intra-caste people. People develop 'We' group feeling among themselves, taking the persons of other castes as 'They group."
Social stratification means social structure in which various individuals have been assigned different roles and status (both achieved and ascribed) in such a way that certain persons are at the top, while the others are at the bottom. These people perform their roles in such a way that the machinery of social structure and social organization continues to exist and work smoothly under normal conditions.
Four Stages of Social Organizations Growth & Development include Period of cultivation, formation, Normal Functioning and period of decline
Social Organizations Definition & Characteristics, "It is state or a condition in which various institutions of a society are functioning to recognize their purposes"
Social change results from the interplay of various factors including geographic, biologic and cultural. Climatic and all factors of earth surface influence man’s livelihood. Heat, cold, atmospheric conditions, drought, earth quakes etc. are factors whose interplay condition man. The abundance or scarcity of topographical factors including the soil and its resources of gas, oil and other minerals influence the possible development of agriculture and industry.
Population growth is the first condition for economic development. The influence of population on economic development has been analyzed in the theory of demographic transition. The relation between demography and economics is the closest but both are the independent sciences today.
Kingsley Davis given the following points of relationship between demography and sociology. Fertility is connected with the attitudes and social institutions. Population changes are related to social and economic change. The labor force is concerned with the population structure and social organization.