Basics of Sociology
The extension of man’s power over nature has been the primary condition of the growth of modern cities. Man has exploited natural resources through technological improvements to a great extent. Now few people can supply basic needs of many people, whenever a society or group within it, gains control over resources, cities grows and fulfill the basic needs of life.
Segregation. In this step the iconological difference occurs due to diversity in activities. In these activities some are identified geographically or related to particular areas of the city. In this way city develops a distinct financial district, a trade centre and a residential sector, each separate from the others.
Tempo of urbanization is one measure it is the speed of urbanization which shows the rate of change brought about by urbanization. It is calculated on the basis of annual population growth rates. The demographers tried out to find how the urban change had occurred and whether it was linear, geometric or hyperbolic (curve).
According to United Nations, localities are of three types, administrative, economic and ecological urban locality is a population cluster, in which the inhabitants live in closely adjacent structures urban locality has a commonly recognized name urban localities are not similar but UN has classified it into three divisions.
The term urbanization is commonly used in demography as well as in geography. The most common measure of urbanization is the proportion of the total population of an area that lives in the urban areas as defined in the census. The process of urbanization has been going on since pre-historic times. However the range of urbanization rose sharply in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The continuity of society and culture is correlated with the socialization of the individuals. The individual is not horn with ready-made solutions of problems and shared expectations. Through socialization the group prepares a child to become useful member of the society. He learns how to satisfy the basic needs.
Socialization invariably brings a degree of conformity among the individuals and ultimately in society. The people brought up in the similar socio-cultural environment tend to develop similar habits, attitudes, interests and value systems and personality traits.
The process of maturation includes the changes in the tissues and organs of body of an individual, which take place as one gets older. These biological changes occur without conscious and deliberate learning efforts. Such changes do not depend upon socio-cultural environment directly, hut these changes take place as a result of heredity.
An ethnocentric attitude may be advantageous for certain groups, but at the same time it may be having disadvantages for the opponents. For instance, Sunnies and Shias among Muslims and Protestants and Catholics among Christians are ethnocentric in respect of their sects. Thus, it would place these sects in an advantageous position, i.e, to have solidarity in their groups and maintain status quo.
Through religious, political, economic and educational institutions ethnocentrism is taught. Members of society are indoctrinated to conform to particular cultural patterns. The religious and educational institutions are the clear examples for teaching ethnocentrism. The children are taught about their country's achievements of their national heroes. They are also thought about the superiority of their literature.