Process of Social Change, Invention, Accumulation, Diffusion

Sun, 12/23/2012 - 08:43 -- Umar Farooq

An American Sociologist William Fielding Ogburn suggests that social change occurs in culture and cultural evolution is the result of the following is the process of social change which includes:

  1. Invention
  2. Accumulation
  3. Diffusion
  4. Adjustment

1. Invention

Linton says that “an invention is a new application of knowledge”. When a thing which is already exists in a culture comes to front and appear before the masses, is invention in social change. Invention occurs due to the following three factors.

Mental Ability. An invention required mental ability of an individual in a society. Larger the population, greater would be the number of talented people. So, mental ability is a source for social change in society.

Demand. A demand of the people for anything which is in scarcity results in an invention, which leads to social change. Greater the demand of people for material object, faster would be the process of invention.

Existence of Cultural Elements. If compare small culture to large, small culture change slowly. When there are more cultural elements the invention will be faster. Cultural elements and resources are very important for an invention and social change.

2. Accumulation

In the result of innovation more new elements are added to a culture. These cultural elements combined with the old elements which results in the process of accumulation. When there is the invention of new elements combined to the already existing elements, the accumulation will be greater.

3. Diffusion

Cultural diffusion is an important source of social change. The process of diffusion starts when an invention or cultural element spread from one culture to another. Quick means of communication and transportation made possible an invention or to diffuse a cultural element to another culture.

4. Adjustment

Last but not the least adjustment is the last factor in the process of social change. After invention, accumulation and diffusion of cultural elements the adjustment of an individual takes place in that culture. All the cultural elements are interrelated with one another but when a material change occurs in a culture it bring slow change in material culture. But with the passage of time the space fills and the adjustment of new elements takes place in that culture. So, the invention of new element becomes a part of the culture as a result of adjustment process of social change.