Factors of Personality, Biological, Social, Cultural & Situational

Fri, 08/12/2011 - 12:30 -- Umar Farooq

Factors of Personality

Enormously the following five factors of personality are contributing to the formation and development of human personality.

  1. Biological Factors
  2. Social Factors
  3. Cultural Factors
  4. Physical Environment
  5. Situational Factors

1. Biological Factors of Personality

Biological factors of personality are very important for the formation of human personality. Children are born in a family; inherit many traits and features from their parents. Children get physical and psychological characteristics from their parents which becomes a part of their personalities. Some of the inherited traits are courage, coward, intelligence, weakness etc.

For example it was experimented on the negro that they are biological inferior. A normal healthy man has some physical similarities such as two hands five senses, two eyes and these biological similarities help to explain some of the similarities in the behavior.

It separates individuals from one another and their various physical characteristics except identical twins having the same physical qualities. So, biological factors of personality are responsible for the development of personality.

2. Social Factors of Personality

When an individual interact with other persons in his/her group give and take relationship takes place and it affects the personality of an individual social factors of personality are responsible for the formation of personality, when an individual has group experience and contact with others personality of an individual is influenced by others may be bad or good but depends on the association in which he/she keeps. In a society every person plays a specific role and status.

For example in our society younger are expected to be respectful for elders. Many other social factors like environment, group life, family, media with which an individual interact in his/her society daily life mold their personalities.  We can say that whatever comes in contact with an individual’s social life affects personality of that individual and develop good or bad personality. 

3. Cultural Factors of Personality

Both material as well as non-material culture affects personality of an individual. An individual living in his/her culture adopts the traits consciously or unconsciously and acts accordingly. Culture of any society determines the behaviors and personality of an individual and he/she is expected to act according to the culture. A person follows all the social norms of a culture which results in the formation of good personality while non-conformity to the cultural rules develops abnormal or bad personality. So, the culture in which an individual seeks satisfaction adjusts himself/herself and develops personality.

4. Physical Environment

Physical environment also determines the personality of an individual. Environmental factors include land, river, mountains, hills, forests, plain area, atmosphere etc which affect the personality to be good or bad, healthy or weak.  All the feelings, emotions, ideas, attitudes, habits and behavior as well as body structure is the result of physical environment of to which an individual belongs. For example, body structure, physique, color and health of the rural people are different from urban people. These people have different environment due to which they develop variety of personalities. The people living in cities have facilities and modern ways of life which creates to develop delicate bodies and minds as compare to the rural people who are deprived of these facilities.

5. Situational Factors of Personality

Situational factors of personality also have a complete share in the formation of personality of an individual. situational factors of personality are charging according to the social situations. Every person face may situations in his life which enables him/her to change his/her behavior. For example, a teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may not with his/her family. An officer may behave with the subordinates differently as compare to his/her friends. Personality is not the result of only one factor but every factor is responsible to give complete share in its formation. A person behave and his/her personality exists when interacts with environment, culture, society, parents, friends and to those who come in contact by chance.