Law & Political Science
Like previous constitution of 1956 the Objective Resolution was included in the Preamble of the constitution under which sovereignty over entire universe belonged to Allah and the people of Pakistan would exercise the delegated authority within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.
Independence of judiciary is determined to a great extent by the mode of appointment of its members. They may appointed by the people through the elections or indirectly by the members of the legislature for a fixed term. They may also be appointed by the head of state through nomination.
Under certain provisions of the India 1935 Act, the Governor General was empowered to act in his discretion and under certain other provisions; he could exercise his individual judgment. In Govt of India Act 1935 the discretionary powers and responsibilities of Governor General are as follows:
The committee went in session from April 1933 to December 1934 for deliberation and submitted its report to Parliament in the end of 1934. The Parliament debated the report and passed a bill in February 1935, which got royal assent on July 24th 1935, and it was enforced on April 1" 1937 with the name of Government of India Act 1935.
In modern times we have indirect democracy, under this system the people elect their representatives and give them the authority to make the law and implement them. Actually in democracy sovereignty belongs to people but under normal circumstances it becomes difficult for the people to legislate directly. So sometimes the people make the laws directly.
Independence of judiciary means that judiciary should be impartial in the discharge of its functions and that the executive or legislature should exert influence on it through the appointment, salaries, promotion or condition of services of its members.
Federalism makes the state weak because there is always a conflict going on between the center and the federating units and as a result of this both the federal government and the federating units suffer. This also results in delays and inefficiency and leads to the weakness of the state.
A federation is an agreement between two or more sovereign states to create a new state in which each will exercise specific powers. This agreement is in the shape of the constitution. The constitution defines and explains the powers and the jurisdiction of each government.