Law & Political Science
The French Constitutional Council ensures the regularity of the election of the President of the Republic and referendum procedure and announces the results thereof. It also decides the validity of the election of deputies and Senators. It investigates the complaints and declares the result of the vote. (Thus. it ensures the fairness of election and also decides the election disputes).
The constitution of the 5th Republic has established a semi-judicial and semi-legislative institution in the form of Constitutional Council to look into semi-judicial and semi-legislative measures. The Articles from 54 to 63 of the constitution deals with the Constitutional Council. It was known as Constitutional Committee under the 4th Republic but under the 5th Republic its title was changed and its powers and functions have also been increased.
While discussing the origin of the state, Aristotle mentions the institution of slavery. He finds slavery essential to a households and defends it natural and therefore, moral. It was rampant in his own time and regarded as part and parcel of national domestic economy. He justifies slavery on the grounds that there is natural inequality between men, there is natural rule of the superior over inferiors and hence the functions must be based on nature
Nature of Indian Federalism, Ever since the inauguration of the Indian Constitution a controversy has been going on about its federal nature. At is said that it is Federal in form but unitary in spirit and that it is quasi-federal that is it appears to be federal but is really unitary form of constitution for it has armed the Central. Government with huge powers which lessen or nullify the autonomous position of the component states.
The spirit of Indian Constitution is based on secularism. Originally the word Secular did not occur in the constitution. The Constitution (42 Amend) Act, 1976, added the term Secular to the Preamble. Accordingly now India is a "Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and democratic Republic". The Indian State does not establish, recognize or endow any religion.
The concept of Secular State can be properly understood only after an appreciation of the true meaning of Secularism. Secularism is a way of life and conduct guided by material considerations devoid of religion and spirituality. The basis of this ideology is that material means alone can advance the welfare of Mankind and that religious beliefs retard the growth of human beings.
Unlike the British Parliament, the French Parliament is not a sovereign law-making body. Its powers are limited. The subjects on which the Parliament can legislate have been enumerated in Article-34 of the constitution. After defining the scope of Parliament, Article-34 provides, the provisions of present Article maybe elaborated in details and amplified by organic law.
The French constitution also provides for a bicameral legislature called the Parliament. Article-24 of the constitution declares, "The Parliament is composed of the French National Assembly & Senate". The Article from 25 to 33 describes the composition and functions of the Parliament. But the description is not complete and many things have been left to be determined by the organic law (Article-25).