Law & Political Science
Dictatorship also known as totalitarianism is not something new. This form of government was known to Greeks and also to the Romans. The Romans Dictators were appointed by the Roman Senate for some special reason and for a certain period.
The chief exponent of Analytical school of jurisprudence was the English Jurist, John Austin. It is also called positivist school of jurisprudence because it considers law as it is and not as it ought to be. This viewpoint is based on two principles.
Soruces of Law are customs & usages, religion, Judiciary, equity, legislation & scientific commentaries.
According to patriarchal theory of the sate the state is nothing but an expansion of the family. In the beginning there was a husband and wife and children. The father was the chief controlling authority. With the passage of time, the family expanded and changed into clan which further developed into a tribe.
The Matriarchal theory of state is very old. There are many people who support this theory. There was a time in human history when there was no system of permanent marriage and family.
John Locke social contract theory also begins with the state of nature. But in his state of nature there was peace, good will, mutual assistance and, preserve. Men enjoyed complete freedom and equality in it. Each man lived according to his own wishes and desires.
According to Hobbes social contract theory, the ruler powers are absolute because these are inalienable and indivisible. Besides the laws of the sovereign are commands. The ruler is the sole judge of what is right and what is wrong. The people have only one right and this is to obey him.
According to this theory of social contract there are three stages through which human society passed and took the shape of the state. These are the three stages: A state of nature,The social contract and The civil society or the State