The concept of Secular State can be properly understood only after an appreciation of the true meaning of Secularism. Secularism is a way of life and conduct guided by material considerations devoid of religion and spirituality. The basis of this ideology is that material means alone can advance the welfare of Mankind and that religious beliefs retard the growth of human beings.
Unlike the British Parliament, the French Parliament is not a sovereign law-making body. Its powers are limited. The subjects on which the Parliament can legislate have been enumerated in Article-34 of the constitution. After defining the scope of Parliament, Article-34 provides, the provisions of present Article maybe elaborated in details and amplified by organic law.
The French constitution also provides for a bicameral legislature called the Parliament. Article-24 of the constitution declares, "The Parliament is composed of the French National Assembly & Senate". The Article from 25 to 33 describes the composition and functions of the Parliament. But the description is not complete and many things have been left to be determined by the organic law (Article-25).
Following are the powers and functions of the Rajya Sabha the Indian council of states. Rajya Sabha has co-equal and co-extensive powers with the Lok Sabha except the financial matters. Any bill, except a money bill, can be initiated in the Rajya Sabha and can become an Act only when assented to by both the Houses. In case of disagreement between the two, the President is authorized to summon a joint sitting of both the Houses.
The Rajya Sabha is the second not the secondary chamber of the Indian Union Parliament. The framers of the Indian Constitution wanted it to be a weak chamber. But it is not as weak as the British House of-Lords, while it is not as strong as the American Senate. In money matters it is definitely a weaker house than the Lok Sabha and so it is in regard to the power to question and. supervise the Cabinet. But in all other respects
Indian Council of Ministers is the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister and consisting other ministers. The constitution has laid down that the function of the Chief Minister is to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his duties. It is its general function and should be understood in the context of the Parliamentary system it has set up.
Following are the main features of Indian constitution first It is perhaps the lengthiest written constitution in the world contains 251 pages, 395 articles, 22 chapters and 9 schedules. The constitution proclaims India to be a Federal Union of States and contains the whole paraphernalia of Federalism.
The constitution of the fifth Republic makes a distinction, though only an academia one, between the President and the government. The President is the head of the State with-important and real executive powers. The French government includes the Prime Minister and other, Ministers, who have the responsibility to run the administration of the government.