The Union Executive of India consists of the President, Vice President and the Council of Ministers, including the Prime Minister. India has a Parliamentary system of executive with the President as the head of the Union, while the Prime Minister is the head of the Executive. The President acts on the advice of the Council of Ministers which is collectively responsible to the Lower House of the Union Parliament.
In view of the unitary features of Indian constitution, several political writers have asserted that the Indian Constitution is federal only in form but is unitary infact. It is not a genuine federation. Professor G.N. Joshi said that India is not striking a federal state for it has a quasi-federal constitution. Professor K.C. Where an authority on federalism, commented that India is a unitary state with subsidiary federal features rather than a federal state
A critical evaluation of the Indian Constitution reveals the fact that it combines both federal and unitary feature. Nevertheless, the centripetal bias in it is strong that it is only federal in form and unitary in spirit and therefore, quasi-federal in nature. As such it can operate as a federal or as a unitary constitution as time or circumstances require.
The Lok Sabha or the House of People is the lower chamber of parliament. It is a representative house consisting of members directly elected by the people. The Indian constitution has fixed its membership at 520. However, through various constitutional amendments (7th, 14th. And 31st) its strength has been changing from time to time.
The French Constitutional Council ensures the regularity of the election of the President of the Republic and referendum procedure and announces the results thereof. It also decides the validity of the election of deputies and Senators. It investigates the complaints and declares the result of the vote. (Thus. it ensures the fairness of election and also decides the election disputes).
The constitution of the 5th Republic has established a semi-judicial and semi-legislative institution in the form of Constitutional Council to look into semi-judicial and semi-legislative measures. The Articles from 54 to 63 of the constitution deals with the Constitutional Council. It was known as Constitutional Committee under the 4th Republic but under the 5th Republic its title was changed and its powers and functions have also been increased.
Nature of Indian Federalism, Ever since the inauguration of the Indian Constitution a controversy has been going on about its federal nature. At is said that it is Federal in form but unitary in spirit and that it is quasi-federal that is it appears to be federal but is really unitary form of constitution for it has armed the Central. Government with huge powers which lessen or nullify the autonomous position of the component states.
The spirit of Indian Constitution is based on secularism. Originally the word Secular did not occur in the constitution. The Constitution (42 Amend) Act, 1976, added the term Secular to the Preamble. Accordingly now India is a "Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and democratic Republic". The Indian State does not establish, recognize or endow any religion.