Law & Political Science
Political process includes political leader’s poll Parties and their activities. Following are some of the characteristics of the political process in developing countries. In the developing countries the political sphere is not sharply differentiated from the spheres of social and personal relations.
Political modernization is regarded as the result of economic development and social mobilization but according to Huntington political modernization containing three more elements in addition to economic development and social mobilization. Political modernization stands for transformation of political culture in response to the changes in social and physical environment.
Though the constitution of the People Republic of China does not emphatically and clearly declare the supreme position of the Communist Party of China, yet in practice, the party exercises complete control over the machinery of the government. As in the Soviet Russia, the Party is the real ruling power and various agencies of the government are in fact, the mere instruments, which .carry, act its policy.
The National People Congress meets once in a year and that also for a very short period of time, therefore, during its long absence, some other body is needed. As in Soviet Russia, the Presidium acts and exercises all the powers and functions of the Supreme Soviet of USSR. When the latter is not in session, the Standing Committee does its work in the constitution system of China.
Chapter 2 of Constitution of China 1982 contains the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens. There are 24-Articles in Constitution of China. In almost all the democratic countries, only the fundamental rights have been guaranteed by the constitution, but in China, like the constitution of Soviet Russia, the constitution speaks of the citizens as well.
The State Council of the People Republic of China is similar to the Council of Ministers in other countries particularly USSR. It is descried by the constitution as the executive body of highest organ of the state and the highest administrative organ of the state.
The highest executive authority in People Republic of China is vested in the President of the Republic and the State Council. The President is the Head of State and the State Council is the Council Of Ministers or the Parliamentary executive as in other countries of the world.
The National People Congress exercises all kinds of powers and covers all aspects of state functions. The constitution of China is not based on the theory of separation of powers. It has legislative, executive, electoral, financial and constituent powers. It has the power to remove a high official of the state.