Observation Technique Definition, Principles & Validity

Mon, 07/22/2013 - 11:49 -- Umar Farooq

What is Observation Technique

Observation has been derived from two Latin words “ob” meaning before and serve which means keeping. Combining both we get observe which gives the meaning a process through which a thing or situation is kept before to see and watch carefully.

Definitions of Observation Techniques

The views of social scientists about observation method are stated below:

  1. P.V. Young: Observation is a systematic and deliberate study through spontaneous eye occurrence.
  2. Johoda: Observation is the recording of behavior simultaneously with its spontaneous occurrence.
  3. Goode and Halt: Observation is the careful and systematic watching of facts occurring in nature having cause and effect relation.

Conclusion: In simple words we can say that, observation is a direct and careful study of a phenomena through naked eye to collect real information’s about a problematic situation.

Principles of Observation

Following are the canons or principles of observation method.

  1. What should be observed (Aims & objectives)?
  2. How to observe (way & Technique)?
  3. Why observation is necessary (usefulness)?
  4. When to observe (suitable time)?

These are the four cannons or principles of observation method which are also called pre-requisites.

Validity of Observation

  1. Observation should be on job activity.
  2. The aims and objectives must be known to observer.
  3. The focus point of the observer must be defined clearly.
  4. Reporting of the observed information should be accurate.