10 Steps in Research Process

Fri, 06/07/2013 - 04:11 -- Umar Farooq

Research process contains a series of closely related activities which has to carry out by a researcher. Research process requires patients. There is no measure that shows your research is the best.  It is an art rather than a science. Following are the main steps in social or business research process.

  1. Selection of Research Problem
  2. Extensive Literature Survey
  3. Making Hypothesis
  4. Preparing the Research Design
  5. Sampling
  6. Data collection
  7. Data Analysis
  8. Hypothesis Testing
  9. Generalization and Interpretation
  10. Preparation of Report

Selection of Research Problem

The selection of topic for research is a difficult job. When we select a title or research statement, then other activities would be easy to perform. So, for the understanding thoroughly the problem it must have to discuss with colleagues, friend, experts and teachers. The research topic or problem should be practical, relatively important, feasible, ethically and politically acceptable.

Literature Review or Extensive Literature Survey

After the selection of research problem, the second step is that of literature mostly connected with the topics. The availability of the literature may bring ease in the research. For this purpose academic journals, conference and govt. reports and library must be studied.

Making Hypothesis

The development of hypothesis is a technical work depends on the researcher experience. The hypothesis is to draw the positive & negative cause and effect aspects of a problem. Hypothesis narrows down the area of a research and keep a researcher on the right path.

Preparing the Research Design

After the formulation of the problem and creating hypothesis for it, research Design is to prepare by the researcher. It may draw the conceptual structure of the problem. Any type of research design may be made, depend on the nature and purpose of the study. Daring R. Design the information about sources, skill, time and finance is taken into consideration.

Sampling

The researcher must design a sample. It is a plan for taking its respondents from a specific areas or universe. The sample may be of two types:

  1. Probability Sampling
  2. Non-probability Sampling

Data collection

Data collection is the most important work, is researcher. The collection of information must be containing on facts which is from the following two types of researcher.

Primary Data Collection: Primary data may be from the following.

  1. Experiment
  2. Questionnaire
  3. Observation
  4. Interview

Secondary data collection: it has the following categories:

  1. Review of literature
  2. Official and non-official reports
  3. Library approach

Data Analysis

When data is collected, it is forwarded for analysis which is the most technical job. Data analysis may be divided into two main categories.

Data Processing: it is sub-divided into the following.

Data editing, Data coding, Data classification, Data tabulation, Data presentation, Data measurement

Data Exposition: Date Exposition has the following sub-categories.

Description, Explanation, Narration, Conclusion/Findings, Recommendations/Suggestions

Hypothesis Testing

Research data is then forwarded to test the hypothesis. Do the hypothesis are related to the facts or not? To find the answer the process of testing hypothesis is undertaken which may result in accepting or rejecting the hypothesis.

Generalization and Interpretation

The acceptable hypothesis is possible for researcher to arrival at the process of generalization or to make & theory. Some types of research has no hypothesis for which researcher depends upon on theory which is known as interpretation.

Preparation of Report

A researcher should prepare a report for which he has done is his work. He must keep in his mind the following points:

Report Design in Primary Stages

The report should carry a title, brief introduction of the problem and background followed by acknowledgement. There should be a table of contents, grapes and charts.

Main Text of the Report

It should contain objectives, hypothesis, explanations and methodology of the research. It must be divided into chapters and every chapter explains separate title in which summary of the findings should be enlisted. The last section would be clearly of conclusions to show the main theme of the R-study.

Closing the Report

After the preparation of report, the last step in business research process contains of bibliography, references, appendices, index and maps or charts for illustration. For this purpose the information should more clearer.