Modernization is change towards economic, political and social systems. These changes consider development on the part of particular society.
Definition of Modernization
Modernization is the process of changes towards those of development in social, economic and political systems in the 17th to 19th century in Western Europe and North America and follow in 20th century in Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa.
How Modernization occurs?
The modernizations occur in the above countries through.
- Colonialism. This is the important reason of modernization. In India the colonial master introduced English language which was the sign of modernization.
- Migration. It is also reason of modernization. The America migrated to candy where migration takes place.
Aspects of Modernization
- Social Aspect of Modernization
- Political Aspects of Modernization
- Economic Aspects of Modernization
Social Aspect of Modernization
The several aspect of modernization consists of the following point.
- Modern way of living. When the old way of living changes into modern way for example replacement of mat with dining table or replacement of pitcher with water cooler
- Mass media. Communication through narration replaced by news paper.
- Changes in residence. For the comfort of life change in residence i.e. some people change their residence in summer to mort rate environment.
- Urbanization. It means shifted to cities or urban areas from rural. At the time of independence of Pakistan 87% population were in villages and 13% in urban area but now days 68% rural and 32% urban, this is the sign of modernization.
- Change of profession. In the beginning economy was agrarian but due course of time changed into industrial. From agriculture to non-agriculture is the sign of modernization.
- Literacy and education. When literacy of population increases this is the sign of modernization.
- High percapita income. When the percapita income increases this is the sign of economic development which lead to modernization become the life style can change through high income.
The economic aspect of modernization on can be explained through the following points.
- Marketing. When barter system replaced with paper money, this is the sign of modernization.
- Wage system. In traditional society there was exchange of services but no fix wages with the coming of time wages fix, this is the sign of modernization.
- Communication. Communication is must for economic development. Without communication the raw material cannot be send to factories. When communication developed, this is the sign of modernization.
- Technology and its application. The technology applied by others learned from these that they replaced old way with modern technology.
- Preservation of Production & Distribution. Storage of food and other products and the distribution of such items in a systematic ways is the sign of modernization.
Political modernization is regarded as the result of economic development and social mobilization but according to Huntington political modernization containing three more elements in addition to economic development and social mobilization. Those three elements are
- Rationalization of Authority
- Differentiation of Structure
- Expansion of Political Participation
Define Political Modernization
- Devis of Lewis. Political modernization stands for transformation of political culture in response to the changes in social and physical environment.
- Benjamin Schwartz. Modernization is the systematic sustain and powerful application of human energies to the rational central of men’s physical and social environment for human purposes.
Characteristics of Political Modernization
Some of the most important characteristics of political modernization are under.
- Increased the Influence of Single Authority. With the process of political modernization the influence of single authority and its agencies increased and become wide spread.
- Differentiation of Functions. With the process or political modernization there is clear picture of the differentiation function in the political system of any state.
- Ultimate Power rest with the People. With the process of political modernization the concept of that ultimate power rest with the people slowly and gradually gains currency.
- Democratic values and Principles become Popular. With the political modernization democratic value and principles become popular and spread far and wide and there is transformation of traditional elites into modern one. There is a marked tendency in their approach towards political issues.
- Secularization of political. There is market tendency towards secularization of political. Political grouping and voting are no more on ethnic consideration or affiliation.
- Commitment to the rulers on bases of perform. Commitment of the peoples to the rulers is not consideration of status, cast, colour, ethnic or religious basis but on the basis of perforation of the ruler.
Rulers also appeal to the people on the basis of what they had achieve and certainly not on any consideration
Difference between Political Modernization and Political Developments
- Political development as a whole of which political modernization is a part of political development includes social & economic progress together but political modernization is concerned with the transformation of political culture.
- Political development carries the notion that it is movement towards some higher order but political modernization is natural process which provides both possibilities of development as well as decay. In other words political development is always positive but political modernization may be or negative.
- Political development moves towards the higher goal and therefore value-oriented (value laden) on the other hand political modernization is a natural process which may tend to be value-free.
- Political modernization plays great emphases on the spread of secular culture and democratization of political institution but political development lays tremendous emphasis on the overall socio-economic development.
- Despite the close relationship between political development and political modernization both are considered two different terms. Political development is the overall development (socio, economical & political) but political modernization confined only to the political aspect, never touch the socio- eco aspect of society.