Features of Political Process in Developing Countries

Sun, 07/20/2014 - 23:47 -- Umar Farooq

Political process includes political leader’s poll Parties and their activities. Following are some of the characteristics of the political process in developing countries.

  1. No differentiation in functions. In the developing countries the political sphere is not sharply differentiated from the spheres of social and personal relations. In the western countries there is functional specialization. The religious duties functions confined only to the priests and they have no relation or involvement with economic or political affairs. But in the developing countries there is no differentiation of function i.e. the religious elites not only holding religious affairs but also involve in polities.
  2. Political Parties. Political parties considering as the “Back bone” of democracy which is most prevailing system. Throughout the world. But their role is different from the parties playing in the developing countries. In the developing countries, despite of having manifesto poll. Parties revolve around personalities and exploit the name of the party founders i.e. Muslim league exploit the name Quied-e-Azam but on the other hand in developing state the masses do not care about the personalities but having care about the programme ( manifesto ).
  3. Clique role in Decision Making. (Small group of likeminded people within party or large group which serve for their own interest). Political parties are dominated by the clique. They serve for their own interests, although these parties having executive bodies and control excretive committer but these meetings are symbolic. Clique gives priority to their own interests under the shadow of party. In developing countries personal cliques are likely to become the key units of decision making.
  4. Charismatic leadership. The leadership in all the developing countries are charismatic. They are having advantages over their opponents become of charismatic qualities. The whole political of the state revolve around them. These kinds of leaders play pivotal role in the developing countries political. i.e. Ghandi Ji (India) & Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Pakistan).
  5. Character of opposition. In all the developing countries the character of opposition is one and same in all the developing countries. In these countries opposition always regard herself as revolutionary and consider their party as movement. They wanted over night changes in the present setup.
  6. Character of Government. In all the developing countries the character of government towards opposition is same. The government doesn’t consider opposition as a part of democratic process. The government called them as “obstructionists” in the way of progress and prosperity of the state. There is no consensus among the government and opposition in the developing countries over any political issue.
  7. Rural- Urban Political. In all the developing states population divided into urban political dominated by the westernized education elites and where as the rural political dominated by the traditional elites. The media and communication reach to urban areas and if reach village, there is no feedback or on the village level.
  8. Gap between Modernized Elites and Indigenous People. The people in the developing societies are at two extremes i.e. modernized Traditional. At the one and are those who have got western education and assimilated with western culture. At the other hand, there are the villagers who have not touched such things. It is very difficult to bring these two poles for some sort of understanding. For example in Pakistan, PML (Q) – (Modernized) MMA (Traditional).           
  9. Bureaucracy. In all the developing countries bureaucracy not only perform its allotted functions but at times it also works as political party, without any exception who control power, whenever military take over occur, bureaucracy perform or  support army to stay in power i.e. bureaucracy (Pak).
  10. Army. In all the developing states army perform or indulge in political. Not only control the government power but also perform the role of beaker of civilian government or dictate civilian govt. that what military wants. In Bangladesh khalida Zia supported by the army.
  11. No interest groups. In all the developing countries there is no interest groups which play a role of lobby In America no interest group in parliament to represent the interest of particular. Section of society.
  12. Lack of Continuity in Development Change. The process of social change hampered in most of the developing countries due to lean of continuity in the developmental change. The developmental projects brought by one political party, stop by her successor which lead to block. The way of social change. All the developing countries faced this problem.
  13. No Stress on Solving Social Problems: - Most of the developing states have not usually emphasized political as a means for solving social problems. Less attention given to social problem instead of pathetic situation.
  14. Founding Fathers & their Role :- Most of the developing countries got their independence under the leadership of prominent personalities called “founding father” the successor of there(F.F) exploit the slogan of founding father, whenever they come to power they forget these slogans and work for their own interests.
  15. Interest Articulation and interest Aggregation. In most of the developing countries there is no such organization or pole parties which perform these fountains i.e. interest articulations and interest aggregations.
  16. Curse of foreign aid. Most of the developing countries fully. Under the grip of foreign aid which provided by the international finance agencies. For example IML word Bank Paris club – IBRD. It is sold that the country which is depended on economically cannot be independent political. The loans which given by international financial agencies, not spend on development programmers like public welfare and sating up of industries.
  17. Population pressure. Most of developing countries having the over Burden of population. The developed countries having less and skilled population than the developing countries. i.e. Britain having less population than Pakistan but very advanced country of the world.