Management is a social science the subject-matter of which is a human being. Man is a social animal but at the same time he is full of entailments and emotions. He has a mind which he applies. He believes in change, if his assessment it that change is what the situation demands. These are a few of the characteristics of a human being which renders one helpless in predicting his behavior. It is because of this helplessness which puts every regulation to naught if the human being is unwilling to co-operate and submit to the direction and command. This human aspect of the management science has put certain limitations on the management that is why it has been assailed from different quarters. The validity of the principle of management has been doubted by many thinkers of both present and past.
Following are some of the important limitations of management
Management is a Social Science
At the very outset management is attacked because of the simple fact that it is a social science being a social science is deprived of the exactness and accuracy a physical science say chemistry of physics. Discretion is the core of management which varies from one particular situation to another. Generalizations and principle in relation to human behavior cannot hold good in all the circumstances since management is more near to behavioral science than any other social sciences are.
Generalization and Principles Differ
Secondly management generalizations and principles cannot hold well in all the cultures and at all the stages of economic growth. Different countries have varying degree of economic development. Different countries believe and practice in cultures and customs according to their own historical, political and social necessities. Their own conventions and traditions guide their social thinking and individual habits and temperaments. In such circumstances, value of judgments and motivation practices differ from one culture to another.
Business Environment Changes
Thirdly the business environment is changing. With every change business complexities are multiplying. These have brought changes in theory, practice and philosophy of management thinking. All these have brought management close to behavioral science resulting into the study of human relations with each aspect of management.
Social Needs Undergo a Change
The fourth limitation of the science of management lies in the social needs which undergo a sea change and as a result the society becomes more extracting and demanding. The society today is watchful and is fully conscious of its rightful due. The management is, therefore, now required to shape its principles and policies according to present dictates of the society.