Disaster Management Cycle Four Phases & Principles

Mon, 03/09/2015 - 05:43 -- Umar Farooq

Disaster Management Definition & Objectives

In Disaster manangment we prepare for mitigation and managing all the activities which can help to reduce the impact, save lives and communities’ rehabilitation.

We form common objectives and values where we encourage stakeholders to plan for and deal with potential and actual disasters.  It is the integration of all activities involved in well-organized manner whether it is before, during and after occurrence, here we use both financial and human resources effectively.  The principles of disaster management Cycle means undertaking all activities at different time like

  1. Reducing risk to potential hazards before disaster occur with the help of development both short and long term strategies
  2. Make sure the appropriate response and assistance to the affect areas during and immediately after disaster
  3. Achieve quick and sustained recovery and rehabilitation after the disaster took place.

Communication facilities for disaster management include Digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination System (DCWDS) it is used pre hazard information. The WLL – VSAT in used for audio communication facility. The MSS Type C reporting uses for sending message through satellite. For online and video facility AES-SNG system in very helpful.

In order to understand the principles of disaster mitigation it is important to clearly understand the phases of disaster management cycle like mitigation, preparedness, response, relief & recovery and disaster management.

Disaster Mitigation

Mitigation is the use of strategies to reduce risks prior to, during and post disaster. It is related to short term and long term measures for example, preventing or reducing risk properly or lives by improving the inherent capacities of people and strengths of habitants, infrastructure and critical facilities. We can define mitigation policies or activities that will reduce an area’s vulnerability to damage from future. Normally, mitigation refers to actions taken before a hazard becomes a disaster.

For example reduce the risk of landslides you could erect a strong fence around the hazardous loose rock on the hill to prevent debris from falling on the settlement in the foothill, alternatively, you could reduce the impact of the landslide by either moving the communities from the foothills, strengthen the houses to withstand impact of the falling stone, or growing a dense forest between the settlements and the hills. Prior to occurrences. Valuables could also be insured if they are vulnerable. All actions involved in reducing risks or impacts are part of mitigation.

Below are the four basic actions of mitigation

  1. Preventing hazards from occurring
  2. Reducing risks
  3. Reducing impacts or consequences
  4. Distributing risks

Disaster Preparedness

Preparedness means minimizing the adverse effects of a hazards through precautionary actions and measures. It entails a series of actions to ensure speedy, effective, and efficient organization and delivery of relief and related responses following the onset of sudden catastrophe.  You can download disaster preparedness checklist.

Preparedness phase can be defined and normally refers to build an emergency response capacity before it occurs, to facilitate effective and efficient response (Mileti).

Preparedness means to inform the community from upcoming disaster, having a contingency plan and means of dissemination ready; ensuring that alert systems are working and training communities for the quick and first reactions of what to do, where to go, who to approach, and what facilities are available for their rescuer. It also means keeping equipment and resources ready for saving the community from impact and injury.

  1. To know about potential hazards, how frequently they occur and how much they can damage and propagate warning
  2. Must prepare disaster mitigation plan and then it testing on both local and national level and to make available all life-saving material
  3. Training of operating authorizes how to organize and utilize the available resources
  4. Conducting awareness comparing and drills as per the disaster mitigation plan involving the communities at risk
  5. Strengthening vulnerable structures and infrastructure and keeping all the basic tools and facilities ready to use and accessible

Disaster Response

To save lives and minimize destruction it is necessary to take actions before warning phase and during and post disaster phase.  An effective response means quick and appropriate actions to save lives and property.

Response can be defined as “actions and capability to react to the sudden onset of a disaster under stress, uncertainty, various constraints and limited resources. In response phase timing in timing is very important factor. It involves

  1. Getting information on the intensity and magnitude of the hazard, possible locations of impacts, vulnerabilities and information on the available resources
  2. Implantation pre impact precautionary measure during the warning and alerts period
  3. Organizing appropriate rescue and relief operations while utilizing the available resources efficiently and effectively
  4. Availability of temporary shelters and basic facilities ensuring access to sufficient stocks of essential and relief supplies
  5. Developing command system for rapid allocation of funds, relief and disbursement

Response is the first reaction of the community and concern authorities at the onset of a disaster. It mainly depends upon the preparedness of the community or the authorities through training and awareness of the available equipment and resources.

Disaster Relief and Recovery Management

Actions taken immediately following a disaster or during the slow onset of a severe impact require exceptional measure to save and sustain the lives of survivors and meet their basic needs until normalcy is restored. These measures involve fulfilling basic needs of shelter, protection, water, food and medical attention.  There are different emerging software like Evolven in Disaster recovery monitoring which provide visibility in recovery management. Effective disaster management information is very important component of response and recovery. Mainly it provides timely information before, during and after the hazard.

In this phase following are the list of activities

  1. Search and rescue activities
  2. Providing food, first aid and evacuation assistance
  3. Quick communication and transport facility to the affect area which will help in the afectees.

In Recovery management phase where actions are taken to normalize the situation depending upon the intensity of the disaster and its impact. Basically recovery is a long term activity which include

  1. Rehabilitation
  2. Restoration of economic activities
  3. Livelihoods
  4. Infrastructure
  5. Medical facilities
  6. Basic standards of life
  7. Reconstruction and shelter facilities