There are two main classes of shares: ordinary and preference. There can be a variety of other shares depending upon different rights attached to such shares in the articles of association. A new type of share can be created provided it does not violate the restriction prescribed by the law. However, any new class of shares will fall within one of the two main categories, i.e. ordinary and preference.
Private limited companies (or privately held corporations) are generally family or closely held businesses. public limited companies are widely held companies with a very large number of shareholders. The minimum number of shareholders under the Companies' Ordinance of Pakistan is seven with no upper limit. However, the authorized number of shares determines the upper limit.
A company is a third legal business structure and has entirely a different organizational structure from the sole proprietorship or partnership. Its formation is due to firstly, the sole proprietorship and partnership cannot meet the increased capital demand of industry and commerce. Secondly, the company ensures the protection of limited liability to the shareholders and investors.
In terms of the legal structure for business, following are the different forms of business organizations sole proprietorship, partnership & companies
Project Cash flows must be measured in incremental terms. I.e. the difference between cash flows with the project and without the project has to be ascertained
Visit a nearby market and you will find Brazilian coffee, Saudi Arabia dates, and lots of Chinese products which are the effects of foreign trade. The ultimate goal of international trade policies of any country is the expansion of market share for goods and services and gives us a choice between the products from all over the world. As a result, companies face completion in products and services quality and price and we get cheaper products from market.
Demand and supply in economics, is one the major concepts and unavoidable element of market economy. Demand for a good or service is that quantity of the good or service which purchases will be prepared to buy at a given price in a given period of time. So it is willing and power to purchase a commodity at a certain price. In economics Supply mean “an amount of a commodity or service, a seller is willing to sell is a certain price and time period.
In economics supply and demand are two basic concepts and backbone of market economy. In terms of economics supply means “an amount of a commodity or service which sellers are willing and able to sell at a given price during a given period of time”. While discussing the topic we should know the difference between stock and supply. Supply means the quantity of goods which sellers are willing to sell in market at a given price.
In economics, factor income, is the personal services can be rendered from factors of production. A labor receives his reward in from of wages and entrepreneur in the form of profit for the services rendered. So we can say the wages and profits are the incomes of the people who are working as a labor and entrepreneur respectively.
Utility is the power of a good or the service by which it can satisfy a human want. According to physics, matter can neither be produced nor destroyed. Therefore, what can produced and consumed is the utility. In terms of economics consumer demands only those products which have utility to satisfy his wants.