What is Quality?
Before to define Total Quality Management TQM first it would be better to understand what is quality. Every person has his own perception about quality. But quality may be:
- Level of Acceptabilit
- Degree of Satisfaction of Customer
- Conformance of Standards
Level of Acceptability
Collecting information from markets, through questionnaires/surveys and giving the information to all concern departments, production, launching the product. When the product matches the customer needs they must accept it.
Degree of Satisfaction of Customer
In today’s world the market is not stagnant, needs are varied with the passage of time, so the market increase its products line to satisfying its customer needs.
Conformance of Standards
It means that the standards, company have developed, that should be implement. All the standards should be achieved. If an organization provides quality product which satisfying customers it will result greater customer satisfaction, loyalty, increase market share, productivity and reduce cost etc.
What is Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management is an integrated process, which involves all the departments of the organization to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of product/services. TQM is a strategy for continuously improving performance at every level, and in all areas of responsibility.
- Continuous quality improvement
- Leadership through quality
- Managing total quality
- Total quality control
Total Quality Management TQM does not mean to improve the quality of product or services but it involves the departments of an organization. All the departments should improve gradually. If there is any defect in a single department then the Total Quality Management is not applied on the organization.
Antecedents of Modern Quality Management
Quality control started its journey in the factory system that developed following Industrial Revolution.
- Products were made from non-standardize materials
- Use of Non-standardized methods
- Varying quality of products
- Standards were dimensions, weight or purity
- Quality checked by purchaser under the rule of Caveat emptor
F W Tylor & Scientific Management
Later on Fredrick Tylor developed scientific management under which he stress on the need for developing the bet way of performing each job, training and preparing workers to perform that job; and establishing harmonious cooperation between management and workers so that the job is performed in the desired way. Tylor emphases on:
- Focus on Productivity
- Centralization Inspection procedure
Example is Western Electric Company, which were at peak in 1928 and employed 40000 people in manufacturing plant in which 5200 were in the inspection department.
During World War-II all the manufacturers were producing war related products because its demand was increased in War days.
Post World War-II
After World War-II manufacturers were turned to
- To fulfill the present demand
- Reduce the quality of products due to high demand
- Producers followed production & selling concept
- The era, began advancement in quality control
- Theory and practical techniques for improved quality