Perceptual Organization | Principle of Perceptual Organization

Fri, 04/24/2009 - 20:28 -- Umar Farooq

What is Perceptual Organization

Perceptual selectivity is concerned with internal and external variables that gave individual’s attention. Perceptual organization is concerned with process of organizing the inputs into identifiable whole objects.  A person’s perceptual process organizes the incoming information into meaningful whole.

Principles of Perceptual Organization

1. Figure Ground

Basic principle “the perceived objects stands out as separable from their general back ground”. Perceptual selectivity will influence perceptual organization.  The viewer is set to perceive one things and the situation is deferent, perceptual organization will be effected.

2. Perceptual Grouping

There is a tendency to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. Grouping is done on the basis of Closure, Continuity, proximity or similarity.


Perceptual process will close the gaps that are unfilled from sensory inputs.  Thus due to closure person will sometimes perceive a whole when one does not actually exist.

Result:        In organization participants may either see whole where none exists. OR

They may not be able to see what exists.


Only the obvious continuous patterns or relationships are perceived.


Nearness states that a group of stimuli that are close together will be perceived as whole pattern of parts belonging together. Students coming out of a lecture hall often department or work groups are perceived as a single entity because of physical proximity.


Greater the similarity of stimuli, the greater the tendency to perceive them as a common group.

  • Group of people coming out of an office building = proximity & similarity
  • Women in organization this leads to stereo typing.

3. Perceptual Constancy

Sophisticated form of perceptual organization.  It gives a sense of stability in changing world.  The size color, shape, brightness of an object are fairly constant every where.

4. Perceptual Context

The highest and most sophisticated form of perceptual organization is context.  It gives meaning and value to smile stimuli, objects, events, situations and other persons in the environment.

Example:  An employee coming late and receiving a pat on the back by employer.

The context is that he worked till late night for the organization.  The organizational participants perceive in this context.