Meaning of Project Method of Teaching
Project method of teaching has evolved from the philosophy of programatists. It is experience-centered strategy related to life-situation. This teaching strategy focus on
- To socialize a child
- To achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives
This teaching strategy is based on the following principles
- Principle of Utility. Choose those projects which are closer to the social life.
- Principle of readiness. Involve the learners in finding the solution of the problem with their active participation.
- Learning by Doing. Learner performs certain tasks and experiences new things. This adds to his knowledge and results in learning.
- Socialization. It develops the feeling of cooperation and group work.
- Inter-disciplinary Approach. To involve the knowledge of different subjects in solving the social problems.
Types of Project Method of Teaching
According to Kilpatric, “A project is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. Kilpatric has classified the project method in four types.
- Constructive. When learners have to construct some things related to social life. e.g. charts, models, maps, parcels etc.
- Artistic. These projects are generally allotted in the aesthetic fields of life. e.g. in music, drawing, painting art and culture.
- Problem-Solving. These projects are given to solve the problems related to any life-situation or related to any subject e.g. how to operate bank accounts? Or how to send an email or letter. These general problems if solved, will make a child efficient for social-life.
- Group-Work. A team of students is assigned a work to be performed. e.g. to develop a garden in the school.
There are four basic elements of this teaching strategy which make it purposeful 1. Spontaneity, Purpose, Significance, and Interest or Motivation.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Project method of Teaching
- It helps in developing social norms and social values among the learners.
- It provides invaluable opportunities for correlation of various elements of the subject matter and for transfer of training or learning.
- It helps in growing knowledge very effectively as a results of their close cooperation on social participation in the spirit of democracy.
- The project cannot be planned for all subjects and whole subject matter cannot be taught by this strategy.
- It is not economical from the point of view of time and cost.
- It is very difficult for a teacher to plan or to execute the projects to the learners and supervise them.
- This teaching strategy should not be used an independent teaching strategy but as a supplementary teaching technique.
- Teacher should try to utilize the inexperience and waste projects to prepare models etc.
- To avoid the problem of supervision, teacher may appoint a leader to each group of students.
- Teacher should fix a time limit for each project.