What is Social Organization?
In an organized society, there is stability and change. Stability is the condition of equilibrium among the parts of society. It is the state of smooth functioning. During this condition; the social problems decrease in society. Change is the dynamic condition of society. An organized society is also changing for the fulfillment of social needs. Abrupt changes in the form of revolution disrupt the existing social order and disorganization occurs in society.
The examples of organization can easily be understood from the organs of human body which are technically joined together called organization of parts in human body. The parts of a table are prepared separately by the carpenter and then fitted together in a technical order. This table is an organized body. It means organization is arranging of parts into its whole. Similarly, social group is an organization of individuals into a social unit. The individuals set themselves at their positions (status) and by interaction (role) they make a social group. It means they are fitted themselves into the group according to their positions. This participation individuals into group is social organization.
The whole society is a big organization in which individuals, groups and institutions participate. It is a vast network of social relationship like the parts of a watch organized together. The groups fit themselves in interaction with other groups giving shape to society by organization: The process of organization resembles with a human body, a machine; a factory, an office, a bank and the human society.
Social Organization Definitions
Duncan Mitchell: "Social organization means the interdependence of parts which is essential characteristic of all enduring collective entities, groups, communities and societies."
Ogburn & Nimkoff. "An organization is an articulation of different parts which perform various functions, it is an active group device for getting something done."
According to Broom and Selznick, "an organization means technical arrangement of parts." Social organization means social relationship among groups. Individuals and groups interrelated together create social organization. It is the result of social interaction among people. It is the network of social relationship in which individuals and groups participate. All the social institutions are social organizations. Associations, clubs and all other formal groups are organizations. Social systems are also based on' social organizations. In an organized body; its members get into one another on the basis of roles and status. The interaction among the members sets them into organizations. The mode of such interaction is called social organization.
Relationship of Social Organization and Interaction
Social organization is the product of social interaction. Interaction among individuals, among groups, among institutions, among classes, among members of a family create social organization. Organization means interrelationship among members or parts which is an interaction. The members of a family become an organized group by interaction among them. Similarly, the sections of a factory have mutual link with one another. The parts of one thing shift from one section to other section till it is completed and then by organization of its parts it is converted into a whole. These sections of factory interact with one another and produce parts of a machine and then these parts organized together make a machine as a complex-whole. It is all due to interaction among sections, groups and individuals. This production is the result of social organization.
Relationship of Social Organization and Social System
Social system is an ongoing unit developed by the interdependence of its elements. A system assigns different functions to its elements. These elements have mutual relationship, supporting one another. These different functions performed by different parts with the help of one another make the whole a system and this interrelation among its parts is called organization. It means a system is the functioning of his parts. A social system also carries an organization.
Social Interaction => Social Organization => Social System
All the above three concepts are interrelated. A family is an organized system by interaction among its members. In a system the interaction is of higher degree than outside the system. The members of a family create an organized group by social interaction. This group while functioning as a whole is a social system. The members interact on the basis of their status and role. This fixes them at their respective positions" in the family. Now the family is an organized social unit. When such an organized family functions, in a certain situation, it is a social system.
Relationship of Social Organization, Status and Role
The individuals in a social organization perform their activities according to their social positions called status. The activities done in an organization are called roles of the members, Even individual performs his roles according to his status. Therefore, status and role are the basis of social participation in an organization. An organized body if formal has its roles and status assigned to its members and offices bearers. The office-bearers like. President, Vice-President, Secretary in an organization have their roles and status defined in the rules and regulations of that body. United Nations Organization (U.N.O) all trade unions and professions associations are the social organizations in which role and status of the participants are defined