The importance of demography is clear for its scope. Since its scope is increasing which already leads to it importance. Demography is concerned with the growth and distribution of population in less developed countries as well as underdevelopment and developed countries. The importance of demography is clear from the following points.
Due to high fertility rate, health problems are created both for mother and child. In most of the developing countries, married women are facing pregnancies problem due to malnutrition. Also due to ill health of mother, infant mortality rate is high in our country. High fertility is connected to the child development. So, demography is concerned with the fertility and mortality and studies the birth and death rates. These health problems are solved by the demographer in the establishment of health planning of the country. All the problem related to health and its causes as well as its possible solutions is the work of social demography.
Planning for Food Supply
Planning for food supply means availability of adequate food for the total population. The inadequate food results in the poor health, low growth, high mortality rates and low physical activity. Food supply grows with the growth of population. The undeveloped and underdeveloped countries are unable to meet the demands of food supply. They depend on other countries for fulfillment of their basic food needs. So, population study is important to meet the demands of food of the poor countries through the aid of national as well as international agencies.
When the size of population is increasing, the demand for housing is also increasing. Therefore data collected about fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization and family formation gives basis for the estimation of housing planning. Demography is concerned that how the problem of housing of a large population should be Solved According to the estimates prepared by the Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific (ESCAP). The number of persons in the age-group 15-24, in 1970 are likely to increase from 379 million to 469 in 1980. So, the population increasing rapidly which creates. So many problems of housing and these are undertaken by the field of social demography.
Unemployment is a social and international problem. From developed to underdeveloped as well as undeveloped countries, the unemployment problem growing rapidly. A demographic factor is the high dependency ratio in less developed countries. For example; In Pakistan, four or five persons depends on the income of one person. So, for employment planning, population study and dependency ratio must be studied. Therefore demography studies all aspects of population where it make planning for employment and unemployment problem.
Today every nation is concerned with providing proper education to children. The numbers of children are constantly increasing which creates educational problems. The demographers are interested to make planning for these children of a specific area or the whole country. Due to educational planning by demographers, these children should be provided proper educational facilities. Abdul education is also provided to a large number of population and demography has estimated the future plan for education.
Most of the people are migrated to western countries. It is necessary to estimate the trends of migration, the immigrants, the emigrants and the heavy burden on other countries. It is the study of social demography to make plans, to stop the problem. A large number of emigrants from a country affects a population adversely and a qualitative change occur. Because these emigrants may be experts as well as skilled and qualified persons which affects the economy of a country very badly. Due to immigration to a country, the population growth takes place which is a hurdle for the development of a country. For example; A large number of people who are illiterate and poor are coming from Bangladesh to India which creating difficulties particularly in the states of west Bengal and Assam. So, the migration planning is made by the govt. as well as non-governmental organization and agencies to overcome the problem of migration. It is the main study of social demography.
It has been concluded from the above discussion on the "importance of demography" that, demography studies all aspects of the people’s population. The data about population is gathered and collecting by the UN agencies and other local organization. So, that data show the problems regarding to population are pointed out by the demography.