According to the survey of mortality in Pakistan and in other countries, it is clear that mortality rate is not uniform. Mortality rate is changing due to some differentials. Following are some important mortality differentials.
Before the 20th century, mortality was higher in urban areas of USA. In 1830, in America, Mortality was worst in large cities than small cities. Similar was the case of Europe. In 1841, the life expectancy in London was 35 years. While the average life expectancy for England and Wales was 40, in Pakistan, the death rate in 1981 was 16.9, in which the rural death rate was 18.9 and urban death rate was 10.30. Similarly in 1998, the rural mortality was 17.0 and urban 9.6. There is difference in mortality rates in rural urban. In rural areas, it is high due to not availability of medical facilities as compared to urban areas.
Some occupations are more risky and creates so many health problems. Some industries are clinked with various diseases. Death rate in some occupations is high while low in others. For example; death rate is high in workers who are working in the mines and chemical industries. Occupation provides income and standard of living which influence death rate. Occupations of high salary and wages show low death rate and the poor people or these who have low income show high death rate.
In all the countries, in different regions, mortality rate is different. The regions have different social and environmental factors, influencing mortality rate is the highest in Peshawar and the lowest in Islamabad.
Education of Parents
It is also an important differential of mortality that parents have different qualification and literacy rate which influences infant mortality rate. The educated parents have a better living. Standard and more knowledge concerning health. According to United Nations report, mortality rate was 95 for the mothers who had never attended the school. While it was 27, for these who had attended school for 13 or more years. In 1998, in Karachi, the infant mortality was low among educated mothers while it was high among illiterate mothers and the lowest for mother who had attained higher education.
Mortality differential is also found in different religious groups. According to a study in Pakistan, the Muslims and Christians have lower mortality rates than the Hindus.
Caste & Race
Among varies races in Muslims and caste in Hindus, mortality differential is found. Mortality rate is higher in lower class caste an race while it is low in higher class, caste and race.
General mortality rates among unmarried persons are higher than the married males and females. One of the reasons is that, the normally healthy persons tend to marry while unmarried persons are almost sick and unhealthy. Also, married persons are more secured and protected and lead a sober life. So, all these factors among married persons contribute to lower mortality rates.
Mortality difference is also found due to socioeconomic status. As socio-economic status raise, rate of mortality falls and as socio-economic status falls, mortality rises. As a general rule, a middle class socio-economic status is favorable for the lowest mortality rate. Mortality rates are higher at the lowest socio-economic level. So, socio-economic status in different countries show mortality differentials.