Contraceptives Methods in Family Planning

Tue, 10/21/2014 - 01:15 -- Umar Farooq

It is not necessary that all contraceptive methods are suitable, and all these birth control techniques depends on women’s age and health, their sexual activity, willingness for children and any diseases. One should consult doctor before adopting any type of contraceptive method. There may have some risks associated with these methods. Different types of contraceptives to prevent pregnancy are used in family planning. Following are some of the important contraceptive methods of family planning.

Oral Contraceptives

These types of contraceptive the strips or packets of tablets which are used by women. These strips have 28 contraceptive pills which contain 21 “active” pills containing hormones and the other 7 pills are “reminder” which do not contain hormones, other packets contains only 21 active pills. Women swallow a pill each day to prevent pregnancy. These oral contraceptives contains two hormones, estrogen and progestin, similar to natural hormones in a women’s body. These are also called combined pills, COCS (Combined oral contraceptives), birth control pills etc.

Function

  1. These oral contraceptive methods stop ovulation (relase of eggs from ovaries).
  2. Also thicken cervical mucus (womb membrane) and making it difficult for sperm to pass through it.

Advantages

  1. It is very effective when used correctly.
  2. No need to use any other method during sexual intercourse.
  3. No worry about pregnancy and thus increased sexual enjoyment.
  4. Can be used by women who have children and who have not.
  5. Fertility returns soon after stopping.

Disadvantages

  1. It have common side effects like bleeding, irregular menstrual period, headaches, breast tendencies etc.
  2. Not highly effective unless taken every day.
  3. Not recommended for breastfeeding women because it affects quality and quantity of milk.
  4. Do not protect against STDs (Sexually transmitted diseases) including AIDs.
  5. It creates depression and less interest in sex in some women.

Injectable Contraceptives

Injectable contraceptive methods include DMPA (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate). Women who use this method receive injections to prevent pregnancy. DMPA is given every 3 months. It contains progestin, similar to natural hormone in a women’s body. The hormone is released slowly into the blood stream. There are other injectable contraceptives which are used every 2 months, include, Noristerat, more thin drone enanthate and norethisterme enanthate. Monthly injectable include cyclofem cycloprovem and Mesigyna. These contains hormones, estrogen and progestin.

Advantages

  1. It is very effective and 0.3 pregnancies occurs per 100 women.
  2. It is private and no one else can tell that a woman is using it.
  3. Does not interfere with sex.
  4. One injection can stop pregnancies for at least 3 months.
  5. It can be used at any age.
  6. No daily pill-taking

Disadvantages

  1. It has common side effects like menstrual bleeding may be changed.
  2. Heavy bleeding occurs at first.
  3. Requires another injection after every 3 months.
  4. May cause headaches, breast tenderness, less sex desire and pimple in some women.
  5. Does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Norplant Contraceptives Capsule

The Norplant implant contraceptive method is a set of 6 small plastic capsules about the size of a small matchstick. These capsules are placed under the skin of a women’s upper arm. Norplant birth control contains progestin, similar to a natural hormone on a woman’s body. These hormones are released very slowly from all 6 capsules into the body of women. Norplant capsules contains no estrogen. A set of Norplant capsules can prevent pregnancy for about 5 years. It thicken the cervical mucus that the sperm may not pass through it. It also stop ovulation.

Advantages

  1. It is very effective even in heavier women.
  2. It provide protection from long-term pregnancies.
  3. Effective with 24 hours after insertion of capsules.
  4. Fertility returns after removal of capsules.
  5. Breast milk cannot be affected

Disadvantages

  1. This contraceptive method common side effects like heavy and long bleeding, headaches, enlargement of ovaries, breast tenderness, Nervousness, weight loss, Hair loss etc.
  2. Client cannot start or stop on her own wish but capsules must be implanted and removed by a specially trained health care provider.
  3. Minor surgical procedure requires to insert and remove capsules.
  4. Some women do not insert into their arms and are nervous.
  5. Do not protect against HIV/AIDs.

Female Sterilization

It is a type of operation and female sterilization provides permanent contraception for those women who will not want more children. It is a simple and safe surgical procedure. It is also known as voluntary surgical contraception (VSC), Tublegation (TL), tying the tubes, mini lap and operation. The health care provider make a small cut in the women’s abdomen and blocks off or cuts the 2 fallopian tubes. These tubes are for carrying eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. When the tubes are blocked, the woman’s egg cannot, meet with the man’s sperm the woman continuous to have menstrual period.

Advantages

  1. It is very effective and permanent.
  2. No repetition and clinics visits are required.
  3. No effect on breast milk.
  4. No long-term side-effects.
  5. Gives protection against ovarian cancer.

Disadvantages

  1. Painful due to surgery at first.
  2. Some infection due to surgery like bleeding and injury.
  3. Female sterilization is more risky and expensive.
  4. Not useful for women who want to become pregnant in future.
  5. No protection against STDs.

Vasectomy/Male Sterilization

Vasectomy contraceptive method is an operation or permanent contraception for men who do not want to produce more children. It is a simple, quick and safe surgical procedure. It is also called male sterilization or male surgical contraception. The procedure is that, the health care provide makes a small opening in the man’s scrotum (the sac which holding testicles) and close off both tubes that carry sperm from testicles. The semen does not contain sperm after the tubes are blocked. The man still have erections and ejaculate semen but have no sperms. The semen no longer makes a woman pregnant.

Advantages

  1. It is very effective and permanent.
  2. It requires no use of other methods.
  3. No repeated visits to clinics.
  4. No health-risks for long-term.
  5. It is effective, easy, safe, and less expensive.

Disadvantages

  1. Minor complications due to surgery.
  2. Some infections like bleeding, pain in scrotum, blood dots in the scrotum etc.
  3. Requires minor surgery by a trained person.
  4. It is not useful for men who want to produce children in future.
  5. No protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

Male Condoms

A condom is a sheath or covering made for a man’s erect penis. It is also called rubbers, sheaths, skins and prophylactics. It is also known by different brand names like “Sathi”. These condoms are made up of thin rubbers while others are coated with a dry lubricant or with spermicidal. It is available in different sizes, shapes and colours. Condoms stop pregnancy and any other sexually transmitted diseases. They keeps sperm and any other organism in semen out of vagina.

Advantages

  1. It prevent pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted diseases like HIV and AIDS.
  2. It can be used soon after child birth.
  3. It is safe and have no hormonal side effects.
  4. It can be used by men of any age.
  5. Usually easy to obtained and no need of health care provider.

Disadvantages

  1. Some condoms bring irritation for a few people who are allergic.
  2. It makes sex less enjoyable for either partner.
  3. It must take the time to put the condom on erect penis before sex.
  4. Condom may be slip off or breaks during sex.
  5. It has poor reputation. Many people connect condoms with illegal sex.

Female Condoms

Female condom is a sheath made of thin, transparent and soft plastic. Before sex, a woman places the sheath in her vagina. During sex, the man’s penis goes inside the female condom. It is a new method for women introduced in 1997. Public and private sources provide female condoms in the US and other European Countries. The procedure is that, sometimes before sex, the woman places the closed end of the sheath inside in her vagina. The end contains a flexible and removable ring to help with insertion.

Advantages

  1. It is controlled by woman.
  2. It is designed to prevent both pregnancy and STDS.
  3. No apparent side effect.
  4. No need of health care provider.
  5. No visits to clinics.

Disadvantages

  1. It is expensive at this time.
  2. Only somewhat effective as commonly used.
  3. Women must touch her genitals.
  4. Supply must be on hand.
  5. Usually needs partners Kay.

Multi Load/IUD

It is female contraceptives. It is also called copper-T, IUCD and IUD. IUD (intra uterian Device) usually is a small, flexible plastic frame. It often has copper wire or copper sleeves on it. It is inserted into a woman uterus through her vagina. Almost all brands of IUDS have two or one threads tied to them. The strings hang through the opening of the cervix into the vagina. The user can check that the IUD is still in place by touching the strings. The contraceptive method IUD can be removed by pulling the strings gently with forceps. IUD is also called IUCD (intra uterian contraceptive devices). Specific IUDS are called The Loop, Copper-T, TCU-380A, MLCU-375. Nova-T, ING-20 etc. These IUDS are working chiefly by preventing sperm and egg from meeting.

Advantages

  1. It leads to effective and long-term prevention of pregnancy.
  2. No interference with sex.
  3. Increased sexual enjoyment because of no worry about pregnancy.
  4. No interaction with any medicine.
  5. Can be inserted immediately after child birth.

Disadvantages

  1. It has some common side effects.
  2. Does not protect against STDS.
  3. Client cannot stop IUD use on her own but a trained health care provide must remove from her.
  4. It may come out of the uterus.
  5. To check the IUD from time to time a woman must put her fingers into her vagina and some women may not want to do so.

Vaginal Methods

Vaginal methods are the contraceptives that a woman places in her vagina before sex. There are several vaginal methods.

  1. Spermicides: Spermicides including foaming tablets or suppositories, (rolled medicines like cylinder, put into some cavity to dissolve there) melting suppositories, foam, jelly and cream.
  2. Diaphragm: It is a soft urbber cup that covers the cervix (neck of womb). It should be used with spermicidal jelly or cream.
  3. Cervical cap: It is like the diaphragm but smaller. It is also a cap like for cervix. Supermicides Kill Sperms or make sperm unable to move towards the egg. Diaphragm and cervical caps blocks sperm from entering the uterus and tubes.

Advantages

  1. It is safe, simple, controlled and useable method.
  2. It prevents some STDS, PID (Pelvic inflammatory diseases), infertility and cervical cancer.
  3. No Side effects from hormones.
  4. May increase vaginal lubrication.
  5. No need to see a health care provider before using.

Disadvantages

  1. Spermicide may be messy.
  2. May be hard to conceal from partner.
  3. Side effects like it may or to her partner, also some allergic reaction.
  4. Interrupts (Stops) sex, if not inserted before hand.

Fertility Awareness-Based Methods

Fertility awareness means that a woman learns how to tell when the fertile time of her menstrual cycle starts and when it stops. When a woman becomes pregnant, it is her fertile time. There are several ways in which a woman tells that when her fertile time begins and when it ends.

  1. Calendar Calculation: A woman can count calendar days to identify the start and end of the fertile time.
  2. Cervical Secretions: A woman can feel or see the cervical secretion then she may realize her fertile time.
  3. Basal Body Temperature (BBT): A woman’s body temperature goes up slightly at the time of ovulation. It show that woman is in the time of fertility.
  4. Fell of the Cervix: During the fertile time, the opening of the cervix feels softer, open slightly and is moist.

A woman may use one of these method or a combination. She use the calendar method, when the fertile time starts and use other methods when it ends. The couples avoids pregnancy during fertile days. They can stop sexual intercourse or use other methods during these days.

Advantages

  1. When it is learned mess, then they avoid pregnancy according to their wishes.
  2. No physical side effects.
  3. It is effective if used correctly.
  4. It involves men in family planning.
  5. Educates people about woman’s fertility cycles.

Disadvantages

  1. It will not work correctly without the cooperation of both male and female.
  2. After child birth, may be hard to identify the fertile time until menstrual cycle becomes regular again.
  3. Calendar method may not be effective for women with irregular menstrual cycles.
  4. May be very difficult to practice, when a woman has more than one sex partner.
  5. Does not protect against STDS.

LAM (Lactational Amenorrhea Method)

“LAM” is the use of breastfeeding as a temporary family planning method. “Lactational” means “breastfeeding” and “Amenorrhea” means “menstrual bleeding”. LAM provides natural protection against pregnancy and encourages starting another method. A woman is naturally protected against pregnancy when she breastfeeds her baby both day and night, her menstrual periods have not returned and when her baby is less than 6 months old.

Advantages

  1. When she keeps breastfeeding very often, her pregnancy protection may last longer than 6 months.
  2. It makes sure that the baby requires nutrition’s and protection from diseases provided by breast milk.