Causes of Low Fertility in Developed Countries

Fri, 11/08/2013 - 03:31 -- Umar Farooq

Causes of Low Fertility in Developed Countries

Following are the factors or causes for low fertility in developed countries.

Motivational Factors

A strong motivation is used for procreating more children, at present time. In most of the developed countries the psychological or motivational factors are in favor of low fertility. Among the motivational factors, the most important factors are desire for small family, availability of means of birth control and emphasis on sex enjoyment.

Economic Factors

Economic Factors include industrialization and higher standard of living. Industrialization compelled males to live in urban areas who are away from their females which results in low fertility rate. When the standard of living is rising, it leads to the desire for a small family. So, in the developed countries, the people enjoying higher economic status and have low birth rates.

Social Factors

Social factors are closely related with economic factors. Social factors are the most important determinants of the present fall in fertility rate. Following are the most important social factors which determining fertility.

  1. Urban Society. Urban society lays more emphasis on individualism, small family, social change and high standard of living so, all these characteristics of urban society are in favor of low fertility.
  2. Modern Family. Modern family leads to low birth rate. Modern family is in favor to provide more education for children, enjoy high standard of living, more health care to the children and females etc. so, in modern families, the number of children are two or one.
  3. Higher Standard of Living. The family budgets have been increased due to the improvement in living standard. Therefore the family size is kept limited to meet the high costs of living and fulfill the demands of the family members.
  4. Social Mobility. Higher social mobility is the characteristic of developed countries. Some of the people are transferred on their jobs while many others have been migrated from one place to another. This social mobility requires small families. So, for vertical progress or social mobility in social status. The people are limiting their families.
  5. Education. Education is the most important factors in developed countries for determining low fertility. Education brings knowledge about the methods and importance of birth control, widens outlook, individuality and health care. It also gives us the ideas about economic resources to be balanced with the family size.